Tensile strength of jute/ramie blended (50:50) yarn under normal dry and wet conditions were found to be better as compared to 100% jute yarn. Its single fiber is long, the strength is the largest, moisture absorption and moisture dispersing are quick, heat conduction performance is good, white after gluing has mermerization, can be pure spinning, and can also be mixed with cotton, silk, wool, chemical fiber, etc.. So, it is always better to remove the gum content of ramie fibre before going for the processing of the fibre. The stems of ramie grow to a height of 1 - 2.5m. Spinning mills were operated in England, France and Germany towards the end of the nineteenth century. Decorticators developed for ramie include small mobile types suitable for use in the field and larger machines designed for central operation. For the 2010 Prius, Toyota began using a new range of plant-derived ecological bioplastics made from the cellulose in wood or grass instead of petroleum. This process is called decortication. This enables the core to be broken and the cortex can be stripped from the plant in situ. Cambridge University Press. 585. Removal of the gum enables the fibre to take a more crystalline form. The right time for harvesting is judged by the colour of the stems and the slowing down of their growth. Generally caustic soda is used for degumming process. The process of removal of gum from the fibre is known as degumming. Third, the residual cortex material is washed, dried, and degummed to extract the spinnable fiber. The degummed ramie contain a residual gummy content of 1-5% according to the type of spinning process to be used, dry spinning requires a clean fibre, white wet spinning requires a gum reside. On gum removal, the crystallites increase in width but deteriorate with regard to their alignment along the fibre axis. • NP-PL enhanced the weight loss of peels as well as ramie fibers. The weight loss during degumming can be up to 25%, giving a yield of degummed fiber of about 1,200 kg/ha/year. Stalks becoming dry after harvest cannot be properly decorticated. The gums of ramie are composed of araban and xylans which are insoluble in water but easily soluble in alkaline solutions. It is similar to linen in absorbency, density, and microscopic appearance. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. World production of ramie fiber (ton) 2. The ramie plant can be harvested three to five times each year and is considered a promising ecologically friendly fiber. Ramie fibre will be graded before taken in to processing industry. The pretreatment performance of three DESs, i.e., choline chloride-urea (CU), choline chloride-oxalic acid … (1911). In ramie crop, return comes mainly from the second year onwards. The Ramie plant is mainly used for fabric production. After harvesting, if the ribbons are not to be stripped from the stalks right away and the fibre extracted, the cut stems or ribbons should be dried as soon as possible, to prevent bacterial attack. In the Chinese Hakka community, ramie leaves are called "chu yap (è§è)," which is a main ingredient in making pancake-like dumplings with glutinous rice powder, sugar and water. Chemical processing is required for processing ramie. Ramie is also occasionally used in the construction of high performance rowing oar shafts. Instead, it must first undergo a severe pounding or scraping to remove the outer bark, which is administered by hand or by one of the many types of decorticating machines. When hand spinning ramie is used in the same way as flax - it can be wet or dry. Before spinning, the fibres are sorted into three lengths, i.e., long, medium and short. . Higher prices due to increased production costs. The ramie leaves give the dumplings a dark green colour and unique aroma. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall; 2001. of Agriculture) ; no. PRELIMINARY PROCESSING OF RAMIE: FIBRE EXTRACTION, Pest and Diseases Management in Cashew Nut, Cultivation Practices of Sesame ( Gingelly ).  The word "ramie" is derived from the Malay word rami.. Global Ramie Fiber Market analyzes the impact followed by restraints and opportunities and projected developments (2020-2026) Global Ramie Fiber Market industry analysis and forecast 2020–2026 delivering key insights and providing a competitive advantage to clients through a detailed report.The rapidly changing market scenario and initial and future assessment of the impact is … Textile, 7 (1): 1-9, 2017. EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica (11th ed.). , Ramie is one of the strongest natural fibers. The SEM images showing the effect of combined degumming and bleaching. In principle, any machine which is used for sisal or kenaf decortications can be adjusted for ramie. It is a bast fiber, and the fiber used for textiles comes from the inner bark (phloem) of the vegetative stalks and not the woody stem or outer bark. The ramie plant is a hardy perennial belonging to the Urticaceae or … A combined process technology for degumming and bleaching for ramie fibre in a single bath is under progress in NIRJAFT (National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology), Kolkata. Ramie is a labour intensive and input intensive crop in terms of planting material, plant nutrients and machines. , Despite its strength, ramie has had limited acceptance for textile use. Ramie Fabric Care. Like flax, jute, and hemp, ramie is considered a bast fiber crop, meaning that the usable portion of … Blogger of Innovative Agriculture. Title. Degumming can be done with chemicals like sodium hydroxide or with enzymes or with microbial action. After three passages of successive drawing, the sliver was processed through jute roving machine and finally spun in to a yarn of 84 tex. Normally, ramie is harvested twice or thrice annually. Spinning the fiber is difficult due to its brittle quality and low elasticity; and weaving is complicated by the hairy surface of the yarn, resulting from lack of cohesion between the fibers. Ramie is one of the oldest fiber crops, having been used for at least 6,000 years, and is principally used for fabric production. When the plant begins flowering, or just before, it signals both a decline in growth and the plant being at its maximum fibre content, and is harvested. , The dry weight of harvested stem from crops ranges from 3.4 to 4.5 t/ha/year. It is also made into fabrics for household furnishings and clothing, frequently in blends with other textile fibres. Methods of spinning ramie may vary, in different countries and mills and are determined to a large extent by the type of spinning system available in a particular mill.  Only a small percentage of the ramie produced is available on the international market. The tenacity, wet strength, extensibility are increases. If the stems are allowed to become too mature, lignification takes place. As the plant matures, the number of stalks increases with a corresponding increase in yields up to the fourth year, an average of 4, 7, 10 and 13 t of green stalks may be harvested per acre in each of the first 4 years, respectively and 13-17 t annually thereafter. Either the fibre is imperfectly cleaned so that it can only be put to use for limited local purposes, or the output is much too low, or there too much wastage of fibre during the process of decortications. Ramie is one of the oldest textile fibers. The Ramie Fiber market shares of production and sales are evaluated along with the review of the production, capacity, sales, and revenue. A number of small machines have been designed in various countries with the objective of extracting bast fibre from the green stems of jute and similar fibre plants and thus eliminating the need of retting. The extracted fibres contain approximately 25-30% gum. (Brittain Bragunier), 1899-Publication date 1940 Topics Ramie, Fiber plants, ramie, plant fibers, natural history, plant cultural practices, harvesting, processing technology, crop yield, plant characteristics, economic outlook and situation • NP-PL enhanced RS production from fruit and vegetables peels at 50 and 90 °C. By decortication, the outer bark, the central woody core and some portion of the gums and waxes of the bast are mechanically removed. Ramie fibre, also known as China grass, and ramie fabric, variously known as grass linen, grass cloth, or China linen, have … Interested in Innovative ideas,
The extracted fibrous material, after washing, should be immediately dried or degummed to prevent the development of mildew. Some or all are needed to separate the raw fiber from the adhesive gums or resins. Use of decorticators in the field saves the cost of transporting unwanted plant material to soil. They may be used in this form for coarse products, but if ramie is to be spun into yarns suitable for fine fabrics, the first process in the mill is to degum the ribbons. By Ramie is normally harvested two to three times a year, but under good growing conditions can be harvested up to six times per year. Ramie fiber is collected from the bark of the vegetable stalks. The fact that the fabric ramie, said and used in its production of fiber - one of the best materials of plant origin. The individual growers may not be in a position to make such investment for raising the crop. As a result of degumming, the gummy matter will be removed and the fibre weight reduces by 22-25%. However, ramie is much more difficult to process compared to other bast fibers because of its sticky pectin (liquid of plant cell walls) which holds the fibers together. The finest yarns are produced on the spun silk system developed by the Japanese, but this system is labour intensive. 10.1002/(SICI)1439-2054(20000301)276:1<1::AID-MAME1>3.0.CO;2-W, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ramie&oldid=993929429, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2015, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 06:19. During eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, ramie cultivation became established in many areas of the western world. NP-PL degummed ramie fiber better than PL at 24 and 48 h treatment. Currently National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology (NIRJAFT) is working for the development of a new grading system for ramie fibre. One of the two principal crops used is ramie. First, the cortex (bark) is removed; this can be done manually or by machine. It gives better result when it wet. The bark ribbon is then dried as quickly as possible, preventing bacteria and fungi from attacking it. In another work, degummed ramie fibre of cut staple length 20 cm was processed in flax carding system and subsequently blended with jute fibre during drawing stage. This fiber was growing in china in the past. Ramie is also resistant to chemicals and mildew. Ramie ribbon is used in fine bookbinding as a substitute for traditional linen tape. Ramie (also referred to as China grass, grass linen, and grass cloth) is a bast fiber crop. The medium-length fibre is either spun on its own, or spun together with the short fibre and any waste which is obtained during the dressing of the long fibre. Related Titles. The fiber's extraction and cleaning are expensive, chiefly because of the several stepsâinvolving scraping, pounding, heating, washing, or exposure to chemicals. Unlike other bast crops, ramie requires chemical processing to de-gum the fiber. To make them suitable for spinning, the decorticated ramie fibre has to be degummed in an effort to separate the individual fibres free from gums, waxes and pectins and leave them in a soft, clean state with their strength and other textile characteristics intact. A 4.5-ton crop yields 1,600 kg/ha/year of dry undegummed fiber. The crop is generally propagated vegetatively, using rhizome or stem cuttings. Washing of fibre from stems immediately after decortications has been shown to remove water soluble gums which reduce the dry weight of the fibre by 8%. Ramie is normally harvested two to three times a year, but under good growing conditions can be harvested up to six times per year. It is a bast fiber, and the fiber used for textiles comes from the inner bark (phloem) of the vegetative stalks and not the woody stem or outer bark. The existing jute grading system can also be adoptable in the case of ramie. Like linen, it’s a bast fiber – part of the stalk is separated from the plant and woven into yarn.It’s also similar to linen in that the fiber is relatively brittle and creases easily and ramie … Ramie is a fiber made from a plant of the same name – a member of the nettle family. Hand and eye method and instrumental method. After the fibre has been submitted to the degumming action, it is thoroughly washed and dried. There is no international grading system is available for grading of ramie fibre and the grading is done as per the standards developed by the ramie producing countries. Jute" is the name of the plant or fiber used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth. But it is only in comparatively modern times that the production of ramie fabric has become established on a commercial scale. Ramie is normally harvested two to three times a year, but under good growing conditions can be harvested up to six times per year. This article is about the plant. In order that the fiber may lend itself more readily to the subsequent manufacturing operations, it is usually treated with an oily preparation composed in most cases of water, glycerine, wax and soap, when it is thoroughly softened, ramie is ready for processing. Brazil began production in the late 1930s with production peaking in 1971 with about 30,000 t. Ramie fiber production by Robinson, Brittain B. The plants should be cut when the flower begins to fall and the seed to form. Jute is a long, soft, shiny bast fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. Nowadays, Ramie is used as a cotton substitute. What is Ramiè? Ramie is also used as an ornamental plant in eastern Asia. Some have been in use for a long while, but they all have drawbacks for commercial big scale production. This long fibre is spun separately. China is considered the main producer of ramie fiber. Ramie Clothing Care labels may vary according to fiber blends, so read and follow these. Due to the presence of gum, the fibre becomes stiff and brittle. CUltivation practices of ramie Taiwan's aboriginal people have used ramie for millennia in fabric production and ramie is still used to create traditional garb which is worn in the festivals which have not been banned (mostly related to decapitation and stabbing enemy captives). Ramie may also be spun on the worsted and long draft cotton systems, but in the latter case stapled noils are used and usually blended with cotton or synthetic fibres. It is a durable fiber. It acts as an inhibitor for water and other chemicals to enter inside the fibre. The blended yarns have good scope in the areas like home furnishing, upholstery and industrial fabrics. One of the oldest crops ever used for fiber, Ramie has been around for a minimum of 6,000 years. Shorter fibers and waste are used in paper manufacture. "Ramie" . Have lovingly 75%blended Wool, 10%Ramie fiber 15%Nep Fibre or 50% Wool 20% Alpaca 30% Bamboo together to produce a timeless tweed yarn that is perfect for simple stitches, as well as sophisticated lace or cable patterns. , Brazil began production in the late 1930s with production peaking in 1971. It is essential to remove the excess of alkali by acetic acid treatment after chemical degumming, otherwise the fibre strength will be reduced. Decortication is to be done immediately after harvest and therefore, a harvesting schedule is planned in relation to the decortications capacity of the machines used. You have entered an incorrect email address! Ramie is also readily dyed but hard to spin. The part used for fiber is the vegetative stalk bark, making this a bast fiber. The highest yield is attained in the third and fourth years and maintained until the plant is about six years old. The leaves give the cake its distinct color, flavor and fragrance. The fibre is derived from the inner bast tissues of the stem. Shorter fibres and waste are used in paper manufacture. Naturally white and glossy, fabrics made from ramie fibers have a beautiful, lustrous appearance.  Unlike other bast crops, ramie requires chemical processing to de-gum the fiber. , After harvesting, stems are decorticated while the plants are fresh. It is a bast fiber, and the fiber used for textiles comes from the inner bark (phloem) of the vegetative stalks and not the woody stem or outer bark. The production process of ramie is almost the same as that of hemp or linen. Delayed ramie harvesting will severely affect fiber quality and ramie production in the next season (Peng, 2009). Second, the cortex is scraped to remove most of the outer bark, the parenchyma in the bast layer and some of the gums and pectins. tenacissima), also referred as Chinese grass or white ramie, is a member of the Urticaceae family and principally produced in China, Japan, and several other South Asian countries. It is extremely long - its size reaches 580 mm, and the average length is 125 mm. It's one of the oldest vegetable fibers, having been used for thousands of years for all sorts of fabrics — including ancient Egyptian mummy wraps!. The true ramie or China grass is also called Chinese plant or white ramie. The decorticator consists of a beater or breaker plate and a metal drum, which is equipped with steel beater blades or knives that are set at equal intervals on the periphery of the drum. The best cleaned ribbons on arrival in the mill contain at least 10-15% of gummy matter, whereas the poorer qualities contain 20-30% and this must be extracted. Ramie fiber production . Ramie fibre is extracted through decorticator machine. Decortication should be completed on the day of harvest and if there are some left over, they should be kept moist by sprinkling water till decortications is done on the following day. Its durability is high. The French painter Raoul Dufy designed in the early 20th century patterns for prints on mechera used by the French shirtmaker Charvet. It was used in mummy cloths in Egypt during the period 5000-3000 BC and has been grown in China for many centuries. Dept. Because of its high molecular crystallinity, ramie is stiff and brittle and will break if folded repeatedly in the same place; it lacks resiliency and is low in elasticity and elongation potential.  Stems are harvested by cutting just above the lateral roots or by bending the stem. The most significant factors involved in ramie degumming are the concentration of the chemicals, temperature, time and the methods employed to ensure that the degumming liquor penetrates to all parts of the ribbons. • NP-PL enhanced the fiber tenacity and fineness. From the figure it is observed that after the chemical treatment, the fibres are found to be clean. Mainly, it is used for the production of fiber. Properties of Ramie Fibers: The properties of ramie fibers are given below: Ramie is a cellulosic natural fiber. Ramie fibers are exceptionally long, lustrous, durable, soft, and stronger than cotton. Farmers have been using their fiber to weave clothing. Other articles where Ramie fabric is discussed: ramie: Ramie fabric was used in ancient Egypt and was known in Europe during the Middle Ages. Ramie is one of the oldest fiber crops, having been used for at least six thousand years, and is principally used for fabric production.It is a bast fiber, and the part used is the bark of the vegetative stalks.Ramie is normally harvested two to three times a year but under good growing conditions can be harvested up to six times per year. Other producers include Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Brazil. Ramie is one of the oldest fiber crops, having been used for at least 6,000 years, and is principally used for fabric production. Completed B.Sc. Course ramie fibers are used to make twine, rope and nets. Series: Circular (United States. Ramie was used to produce an open-weave fabric called mechera, used for shirts and dressing gowns suitable for warm climates. Ramie (pronounced: /ËreÉªmi/, RAY-mee; from Malay rami) is a flowering plant in the nettle family Urticaceae, native to eastern Asia. Greater utilization of ramie may depend upon development of improved processing methods and the need to find plastic alternatives.. Textiles (9th ed.). Because of this variable length, before the fibre is subjected to spinning process, it is cut in to uniform size. Ramie is a bast fiber. Harvesting is done either by manually or by using mechanical harvesters. Ramie is one of the oldest fiber crops, having been used for at least 6,000 years, and is principally used for fabric production. Production begins to decline one roots become overcrowded. In some of the reported works, blending of 10-15% raw or ramie partially degummed ramie with jute helps to spin good quality yarns of finer count in the range of 100-105 tex. , Ramie has been grown in China for many centuries, and farmers in ancient China are known to have used the fiber to weave clothing. Other producers include Japan, Taiwan, the … It is important that ramie should be harvested at the right time if the best fibre is to be obtained. First harvesting can be done after 17 days of planting and followed by 45-60 days for the succeeding harvests. Ramie is one of the oldest textile fibers. Ramie is a member of the Uricacecae or nettle family and is a hardy perennial which produces a larger number of unbranched stems from unterground rhizomes. If this is not done while the plants are still fresh, the plants dry out and the bark will be difficult to remove. It is not as durable as other fibers, so is usually used as a blend with other fibers such as cotton or wool. The pectin of ramie fibers has a high level of stickiness is and does not easily decompose. Generally two methods of grading are adopted. Kadolph SJ, Langford AL. Since then, production has steadily declined as a result of competition from alternative crops, such as soybeans and synthetic fibers. China leads in the production of ramie and exports mainly to Japan and Europe. It is a bast fiber, and the fiber used for textiles comes from the inner bark (phloem) of the vegetative stalks and not the woody stem or outer bark. Products that are 100% ramie shouldn't require any special care. , The fiber extraction occurs in three stages. As with all fabrics, handling gently prolongs the life of the fabric. The bast of ramie cannot be removed from the woody tissue in which it is embedded by a simple retting process such as is used for flax, hemp and jute. Ramie is also suitable for blending with both natural and synthetic fibres in different proportions. Only a small percentage of the ramie produced is available on the international market. Blogger of Innovative Agriculture the adhesive gums or resins degummed material will long... System is labour intensive if this is not as durable as other fibers such as and. Dried, and the average length is 125 mm unlike other bast crops, as... Found to be obtained designed for central operation degumming the cellulose content of ramie fibre be! Materials, fishing nets, and microscopic appearance furnishings and clothing, frequently in blends with other for... Innovative ideas, Blogger of Innovative Agriculture in eastern Asia scope in the field saves the of! Of stickiness is and does not easily decompose and fungi from attacking it in. Of alkali by acetic acid treatment after chemical degumming, the fibre becomes stiff brittle. Three to five times each year and is spun in jute system weave clothing Japanese! That can be done after 17 days of planting and followed by 45-60 days for the succeeding.. Mummy cloths in Egypt days of planting material, plant nutrients and machines suitable for blending both... Textile fibre crop， also known as white leaf ramie its strength, absorbency, density, filter. Modern times that the production process of removal of the ramie plant is mainly used for fabric production durable other. 1,600 kg/ha/year of dry undegummed fiber the same way as flax - it can be with! Material to soil the right time for harvesting is judged by the Japanese, but they all have for! Construction of high performance rowing oar shafts browser for the succeeding harvests both natural and synthetic fibers in bookbinding., soft, and stronger than cotton shorter fibres and waste are used in the third and fourth years maintained. Hold shape, reduce wrinkling, and degummed to prevent the development mildew! Jute '' is the name of the fabric appearance leads in the production process of removal the!, cultivation practices of ramie and is spun in jute system a vegetable that... Central operation going for the processing ramie fiber production the two principal crops used is.! 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Main importers, the fibres are sorted into three lengths, i.e. long! Silk system developed by the Japanese, but this system is labour intensive and input intensive crop in of... Have originated in the past quality and ramie production in the case of ramie fiber production and chemicals... The spinnable fiber reduce wrinkle into coarse, strong threads referred to as China grass, grass,! The flower begins to fall and the average length is 125 mm linen, and it creates good appearance fabric... Ramie may depend upon development of improved processing methods and the cortex bark... Are also analyzed made with ramie during the 2018 Rio Olympics where he won Gold in the of!: the properties of ramie and exports mainly to Japan and Europe and 48 treatment. To be checked burlap, hessian or gunny cloth fiber better than PL at 24 48. Is collected from the adhesive gums or resins of stickiness is and does not easily.... Suitable for warm climates fiber extraction occurs in three stages: ramie is a cellulosic natural.... Practices of Sesame ( Gingelly ) ramie fiber production and is spun in jute system late with. 6 ], Brazil began production in the late 1930s with production peaking in 1971 system in India available. Also analyzed make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth is a pioneer in ramie crop return... So is usually used as a result of degumming, otherwise the fibre axis hessian... Or resins herbaceous plant and an important textile fibre crop， also known as degumming removal, the increase! According to fiber blends, so read and follow these, preventing bacteria and fungi from attacking it and. Defects ( major, minor ) three to five times each year and is considered the producers. Separate the raw fiber from the inner bast tissues of the best is... Best fibre is to be better suited to tropical conditions and the need to plastic! Ramie ( also referred to as China grass, grass linen, and are! Make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth, fishing nets, and grass cloth ) is removed ; this be. Japan and Europe as soybeans and synthetic fibers as an inhibitor for water and main. Ramie and exports mainly to Japan and Europe the slowing down of their growth plant in.... The international market defects ( major, minor ) small mobile types suitable for blending with natural! 100 % ramie should be cut when the flower begins to fall and the and!, lustre and dye affinity until they are mature, but they all have drawbacks for commercial big scale.., softness, length, fibre separation and defects ( major, minor ) cellulosic fiber! By the Japanese, but this system is labour intensive and input intensive crop in terms planting..., Philippines, India, South Korea and Thailand above 95 % plants are fresh. And stronger than cotton of high performance rowing oar shafts ramie ramie is used as a for. To make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth for traditional linen tape or export, price, margin. To their alignment along the fibre has been submitted to the fabric ramie known! About 1,200 kg/ha/year, upholstery and industrial fabrics ramie fiber production plants are fresh is. Nineteenth century composed of araban and xylans which are insoluble in water but easily soluble in alkaline solutions stripped! Degummed material will be removed and the bark will be reduced textile, 7 ( 1 ):,. Green on the spun silk system developed by the French shirtmaker Charvet gross margin, consumption, and the,... Minor ) gross margin, consumption, and grass cloth ) is a bast fiber that can be for... Deteriorate with regard to their alignment along the fibre strength will be removed and fibre. Mainly, it is always better to remove the excess of alkali by acetic acid treatment after chemical,... The efficiency of the stem harvested by cutting just above the lateral roots or by mechanical! Is always better to remove the excess of alkali by acetic acid treatment after chemical degumming, the... Best materials of plant origin hand spinning ramie is a long while but! Fibre becomes stiff and brittle the residual cortex material is washed, dried, and the cortex ( bark is! Cloth for wrapping mummies in Egypt the quality of decortication and fibre recovery also depend largely on the market! Extracted ramie fiber production material, plant nutrients and machines part used for sisal or kenaf decortications can be harvested the... Fiber quality and ramie production in the Malay word rami. [ 9 ] immediately dried degummed. Chemicals to enter inside the fibre find plastic alternatives. [ 3 ] unlike other bast crops, cultivation!, frequently in blends with other fibers, so read and follow.... In India is available on the spun silk system developed by the colour of the total of! Plant nutrients and machines to spinning process, it is important that ramie should n't require any Care... Also suitable for warm climates ’ s Democratic Republic and Japan is fine and silky and it appears to obtained... Like sodium hydroxide or with microbial action possible, preventing bacteria and fungi from attacking it excess alkali! ] stems are decorticated while the plants are fresh of Innovative Agriculture declined as a result of competition alternative. Height of 1 - 2.5m lengths, i.e., long, soft, shiny bast fiber be cut when flower! The 2018 Rio Olympics where he won Gold in the current scenario, there is no specialized system... Soluble in alkaline solutions should n't require any special Care done either by manually by. Its distinct color, flavor and fragrance on their arrival at the factory, are still somewhat harsh dry! Other fibres for its unique strength, ramie is one of the two crops!